Departmental Seminars

Department of Microbiology

Monthly Organized Seminar Series, Department of Microbiology, Umaru Musa Yar’adua University, Katsina

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Month

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1

Prof Isaac A. Adeleye (University of Lagos)

Bioprospecting for antimicrobial and anticancer compounds from Actinomycetes from Lagos Lagoon sediments

August 2017

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2

Prof Muh’d. D. Mukhtar (Bayero University, Kano)

Surveillance for Hepatitis B virus surface antigen in a northern Nigerian population: An advocacy for aggressive vaccination

October 2017

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3

Dr Usman Aliyu Dutsinma (Bayero University, Kano)

Molecular diagnostic of HIV and the challenges in African Countries

November 2017

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4

Dr Zubairu Umar Darma (Umaru Musa Yar’adua University, Katsina)

Molecular Characterization of Bacteria; Principle and process of 16S rRNA gene Sequencing

January 2018

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5

Fatima Mukhtar (Umaru Musa Yar’adua University, Katsina)

Serogrouping and antibiogram of Salmonellaspecies isolated from Wells with close proximity to Pit Latrines in some parts of Katsina state, Nigeria

February 2018

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6

Dr Abdullahi Sama’ila (Umaru Musa Yar’adua University, Katsina)

An overview of Tetanus as a deadly infectious disease in Nigerian context

March 2018

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7

Dr Bashir Abdulkadir (Umaru Musa Yar’adua University, Katsina)

Role of Probiotics and Gut Microbiome in the management of Preterm Infant Infections: A molecular approach

April 2018

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8

Hayatuddeen M. Rumah

Neonatal Herpes simplex virus Infection

May, 2018

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9

Musa Sani Kaware

Nosocomial Infection as a Public Health Challenge

June, 2018

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10

Sani Aliyu

Salmonella Typhimurium Biofilm formation and it’s chemical      sensitivity on plastic surface

July, 2018

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11

Dr Zubairu Umar Darma

Principle behind using Microorganisms for Mining of Metal ores

September, 2018

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12

Dr Kamaluddeen Kabir

Fossil Fuels and Renewables

October, 2018

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13

Kabir Yahuza

Microbial Pathogens associated with domestic house flies

October, 2018

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ABSTRACTS OF SEMINAR SERIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS

DATE

TITLE OF PAPER/ABSTRACT

16th May 2017

Does Okun’s Law Exist in Nigeria? Evidence From ARDL Bounds Testing Approach

 

Nurudeen Abu

Department of Economics, Umaru Musa Yar’adua University, Nigeria.

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Abstract

Nigeria has not only contended with high unemployment rates, the country has also failed to achieve sustained and higher economic growth rates required to lift its teeming population from poverty trap, in addition to attaining the desired level of economic development. Despite the numerous studies on unemployment rate-economic growth relationship (otherwise known as the verification of the Okun’s hypothesis), little has been done in this regards with respect to Nigeria. This study employs the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing technique to examine the Okun’s law existence in Nigeria from 1970 to 2014. The results indicate that there is a cointegrating or long run relationship between unemployment rate and economic growth. The results also demonstrate that unemployment rate has a short run negative and significant effect on economic growth, and therefore confirm the existence of the Okun’s hypothesis in Nigeria. Thus, policymakers should employ policies to reduce unemployment so as to enhance economic growth in Nigeria.

16th May 2017

ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF PRIVATIZATION ON THE GROSS PROFIT MARGIN OF PRIVATISED SOES: EVIDENCE FROM PANEL DATA ANALYSIS

 

Abubakar Muhammed Magaji

Department of Economics, Umaru Musa Yar’adua University, Nigeria.

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Abstract

Government intervention in managing the economy is well pronounced and documented in economic literature prior to deregulation era. The failure of free market mechanism leads to government intervention in managing the economic endeavor. In Nigeria, it is assumed that privatizing public enterprises will yield benefits relating to growth, profit, renewed investment, budgetary savings and preservation of scares resources. The paper examines the growth profit margin performance of privatized state-owned enterprises using panel data method of analysis. Various diagnostic checking has been conducted on the model. The result shows that the coefficient of privatization and the rest of the variables are statistically insignificant at any level of significance which means the variables have no significant statistical relationship with GPM. This implied that the implementation of privatization policy on the sampled Nigerian SOEs have not significantly improved their growth profit margin.

19th July 2017

An empirical Study between Import and Manufacturing Sector

 

Salimatu Rufai Mohammed

Department of Economics, Umaru Musa Yar’adua University, Katsina

This paper investigates the impact of import on manufacturing sector performance in Nigeria 1986-2014).The study was prompted due to the rampant increase in importation of manufactured goods which affects the development of Nigeria’s manufacturing sector development in particular and the nation’s development in general. The analysis starts with examining the stochastic characteristics of the time series data using Augmented Dickey Fuller and Philip Perron test. The test revealed that all the series are non-stationary at level but stationary at first difference. Using Johansen’s cointegration test it was established that there is long run relationship between the variables under study. A negative error correction coefficient was also obtained from the Vector Error Correction model. The result shows there is an overall negative relationship btw LIMP and LMFG. The study therefore recommends that proper policy be adopted by Nigerian government and policy makers in curtailing importation of manufactured goods that are produced locally thereby reviving Nigeria’s manufacturing sector.

 

KEYWORDS: MANUFACTURING SECTOR OUTPUT, IMPORT, EXCHANGE RATE, FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT COINTEGRATION

14th March 2018

How Does Pensions Affect Savings in Nigeria? Evidence from Quarterly Data

 

Nurudeen Abu

Department of Economics, Umaru Musa Yar’adua University Katsina, Nigeria

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Abstract

Despite the efforts of scholars to examine the connection between pensions and savings, little attention has been paid to the issue in Nigeria. This study investigates the effect of pensions on savings in Nigeria using quarterly data over the 2004-2015 period. Employing the ARDL bounds testing technique, the empirical evidence reveal that there is cointegration or long-run relationship between pensions and savings, along with internal conflicts, unemployment, real interest rate and income level. The results indicate that pensions has a negative and significant effect on savings in the short-run, while its effect on savings is positive and significant in the long-run. The findings suggest that the availability of pensions will displace savings in the short-run, while it provides an avenue for individuals to increase their retirement income in the long-run, leading to higher national savings. In addition, internal conflicts and unemployment have a negative and significant effect on savings both in the short-run and long-run. Based on these outcomes, this study recommends policies to promote pension contributions, including reducing internal conflicts and unemployment to raise savings in Nigeria in the long-run.

Keywords: savings, pension benefits, Nigeria, ARDL

 

Econometric Approach to the Nigeria’s Government Revenue: Evidence from Vector Error Correction Model (VECM)

 

Nura Hamisu Mohammed

Department of Economics, Umaru Musa Yar’adua University Katsina, Nigeria

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Abstract

The objective of this paper is to examine the impact of Nigeria’s government revenue on Nigerian economy using an econometric approach. In the process to achieve this objective the researcher developed Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). And in developing VECM three pre-tests are carried out which are optimal lag selection (using FPE, AIC, HQ, LR and SIC), stationarity test (using Correlogram) and cointegration test (using Johansen Cointegration test, 1991). Consequently, the lag selection criteria by majority of the criteria used suggested four lags. While the stationarity test signified that all the variables are I(1). And the Johansen cointegration technique showed an existence of longrun association between the variables. These bases qualify the analysis to use restricted VAR (VECM) model. The empirical results of the VECM show that there are both shortrun and longrun relationship running from oil revenue and non-oil revenue to Nigerian Economy proxy by GDP. The study recommends that the government should employ means of diversifying its economy, so as to get away from practices of mono-cultural economy or solely depend on oil as a major source of revenue. It also recommends that the government should take measures to break the overdependence on developed nations’ resources and technologies in developing their economies.

 

Keywords: Oil Revenue, Non-oil Revenue, Gross Domestic Product, Vector Error Correction Model.

 

Could Nigeria’s Import Substitution Strategy Work and Sustain?: Evidence from Theory and Experiences

 

Ahmed Halliru Malumfashi

Department of Economics, Umaru Musa Yar’adua University Katsina, Nigeria

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Abstract

This paper tried to review theoretical literature as well as models of imports substitution that obtained in Taiwan, India and China with a view to arguing whether the strategy in Nigeria could work or not. The paper argued that, given the conditions on ground, imports substitution strategy could not work on sustain considering the facts that all the institutions and policies that support ISI are weak with the exception of the banking sector. Firstly, the country political system (democracy) and political parties lacks leaders that are radicals with strong nationalist spirit as obtained in almost all the East-Asian economies. Leadership and leaders are influenced by sentiments and selfish interest due to tribalism, regionalism, religious differences, etc. In addition, institution quality is weak as indicated by high level of corruption, ease of doing business of lacking, rule of law is weak. In addition, the policy is too ambitious for covering large products and sectors even where the country lacks comparative advantage and ISI is not backed with Exports promotion (EOI). Infrastructure and human capital are also deficient.

 

18th October 2018

Effects of Corruption and Political Instability Interaction on Savings in the Economic Community of West African States

 

Nurudeen Abu

Department of Economics, Umaru Musa Yar’adua University, Katsina

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Abstract

Although many studies have examined the factors that affect savings, little has been done to examine the effects of corruption and political instability on savings. This paper examines the effects corruption and political instability on savings, in addition to investigating whether the effect of corruption (or political instability) on savings depend on the levels of political instability (or corruption) in the ECOWAS from 1996 to 2015. Employing OLS and TSLS-instrumental variable techniques that take into account random effects, the results illustrate that lesser corruption and higher political stability have a significant and positive effect on savings, and the effect of corruption (or political instability) on savings depends on the levels of political instability (or corruption) in ECOWAS countries. The findings suggest that, the effect of corruption (or political instability) on savings is lesser at high levels of political stability (or low levels of corruption) and vice versa. Thus, measures taken to reduce corruption and promote political stability would raise savings in the ECOWAS. Also, promoting political stability will reduce the adverse effect of corruption on savings, and reducing corruption will lower the effect of political instability on savings in the ECOWAS.

 

AN ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF EXCHANGE RATE ON IMPORT SUBSTITUTION DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

 

Ahmed Halliru Malumfashi

Department of Economics, Umaru Musa Yar’adua University Katsina, Nigeria

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Abstract

The objective of this paper is to examine the impact of exchange rate on import substitution in Nigeria. But before advancing with the empirical analysis, the paper explored some of the major challenges facing import substitution drive in the country which include infrastructure deficit, declining government revenue, foreign exchange shortages, weak institutions, low human capital development and insecurity. The empirical analysis begun with investigating the time series characteristic of the data using Phillips-Perron unit root test and the results shows that the variables in the model became stationary after taking first difference, meaning that they were all integrated of first order I(1).The nature of the integration order justified the use of Johansen cointegration technique and from the results the null hypothesis of no cointegration was accepted, thus, limiting the analysis to be purely short run using unrestricted VAR model. The empirical results shows that exchange rate and private sector credit significantly impact on import substitution development in the country. While increase in private sector credit promotes the development of import substitution, increase in exchange rate (naira depreciation) depress the development of import substitution. The paper, therefore, recommended that Central Bank should sustain its intervention efforts in the foreign exchange market and encourage investment by reducing interest rate to enable the real sector access to easy and cheap credit. Fiscal authorities should consider public-private partnership option towards human capital development and bridging the infrastructure deficit, and this will avoid the crowding-out of private sector in the financial sector. Also, measures should be taken towards improving institutional quality especially ease of doing business, property right, fight against corruption and ensuring secured environment.

 

Keywords: Import Substitution, Exchange Rate, Private Sector Credit, Local Industries, VAR.

10th April 2018

DISAGGREGATE EFFECT OF FEDERAL GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE ON MANUFACTURING SECTOR PERFORMACE (1981- 2016)

 

Salimatu Rufai Mohammed

Department of Economics, Umaru Musa Yar’adua University Katsina, Nigeria


 

Abstract

Although there is continuous increase in the annual government expenditure aimed at increasing economic growth, the manufacturing sector growing fast to meet the expectation of Nigeria’s increasing population and demand. This study examines the effect of disaggregated government expenditure on manufacturing sector output in Nigeria using annual time series data from 1981-2016, using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach. The objectives are to determine the effect of capital and recurrent expenditure in Administration (ADM), Social and community services (SCS) and Economic Services (ES) on manufacturing sector output (MFG). The result reveals there is longrun relationship between the variables. It shows that only RADM has positive effect on MFG in the short run and long run for recurrent expenditure while for capital expenditure, both CADM and CSCS have positive effect on MFG in the long run and short run. The study recommends that government should increase expenditure on economic services and social and community services. Policies that ensure proper, efficient and timely implementation of budget should be approved.

 

Keyword: ARDL, Manufacturing sector, Recurrent Expenditure, Capital Expenditure, Economic Growth

18th October 2018

How Does Corruption Affect Economic Growth in Nigeria? ‘Grease’ Versus ‘Sand’ the Wheels Hypothesis

 

Nurudeen Abu

Department of Economics, Umaru Musa Yar’adua University, Nigeria.

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Abstract

Despite its abundant human and natural resources, Nigeria has failed to annex its potential to sustain higher growth rates required for any meaningful economic development. One factor that has always been blamed for the dismal economic performance in Nigeria is the high level of corruption. This study examines the effect of corruption on Nigeria’s economic growth over the 1984-2014 period, using the ARDL bounds testing technique. The empirical evidence demonstrate that corruption and economic growth (along with domestic investment, unemployment, political instability, foreign direct investment, and domestic savings) are cointegrated. The results indicate that higher corruption has a positive and significant effect on economic growth both in the short-run and the long-run. This finding supports the ‘Grease’ the wheels hypothesis, and suggests that corruption has contributed to the growth of the Nigerian economy via reducing bureaucratic inefficiencies which constitute barriers to investment and economic activities. Nevertheless, the study recommends policies to reduce corruption in order to promote economic growth in Nigeria.

 

Keywords: corruption, economic growth, grease the wheels, sand the wheels, ARDL, Nigeria.

 

Inflation and Unemployment Trade-off: A Re-examination of the Phillips Curve and its Stability in Nigeria

 

Nurudeen Abu

Department of Economics, Umaru Musa Yar’adua University Katsina, Nigeria

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Abstract

Although the maintenance of price stability and attainment of full employment are important macroeconomics goals in any economy, Nigeria still contends with problems of high inflation and unemployment. This study examines the Phillips curve hypothesis (inflation and unemployment trade-off) and its stability in Nigeria from 1980 to 2016, using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach. Other estimation techniques including the Dynamic Ordinary Least Squares (DOLS) and Canonical Cointegration Regression (CCR) were employed to ascertain the consistency and robustness of the results generated using the ARDL method. The result of the cointegration test reveals the existence of a cointegrating or long-run relationship between inflation and unemployment. The results of the ARDL, DOLS and CCR estimation indicate that there is a trade-off relationship between the variables, and higher unemployment leads to lower inflation in the long-run. In addition, the result of the Toda-Yamamoto causality test demonstrates that there is a one-way causality from inflation to unemployment. Furthermore, the result of the stability test confirms stability of the long-run parameters. Based on these findings, this study recommends policies to reduce inflation and unemployment in Nigeria.

 

Keywords: Inflation, Unemployment, Phillips Curve, Nigeria

 

Asymmetric Cointegration Analysis of Public Debt and Economic Growth in Nigeria

 

Abdulsalam Abubakar

Department of Economics, Umaru Musa Yar’adua University Katsina, Nigeria

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Abstract

Public debt if appropriately utilized can be a source of long term economic growth, by promoting capital accumulation. However, when public debt is excessive and/or inappropriately used, it can have long term negative effects on economic growth. In view of the recently rising public debt portfolio of Nigeria, this study empirically investigates the long term effects of external and domestic debts on its economic growth. The study applies asymmetric cointegration test and DOLS estimator on annual time series data covering 1970 to 2015. The findings reveal that both external and domestic debts have negative long-run effects on the economic growth of Nigeria. However, while the adjustment to the long-run equilibrium is asymmetric in the case of external debt, it is symmetric for domestic debt. Moreover, the positive effects of external debts are short-lived, while its negative effects persist. Some of the policy implications are that external borrowing should only be resorted to, when it is absolutely necessary and the funds should be used to efficiently deliver and manage the project(s) for which it is meant for. Government also should employ fiscal prudence measures to reduce its reliance on domestic debt in financing fiscal deficits. Moreover, Nigeria should embrace the public-private-partnership model of financing infrastructural development as against the current practice where government is the sole financier and provider of public capital assets.

 

Keywords: Asymmetric, Cointegration, Domestic Debt, External Debt, Nigeria.

 

An Empirical Investigation of the Twin Deficits Hypothesis in Nigeria

Nurudeen Abu

Department of Economics, Umaru Musa Yar’adua University Katsina, Nigeria

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Abstract

Nigeria has not been able to generate adequate revenue to match her expenditure over the years. It is not surprising therefore, that the country frequently operates deficit budgeting with its negative consequences on the current account balance. This study investigates the twin deficits hypothesis for Nigeria over the 1981-2014 period, using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to cointegration. The results of the empirical analysis indicate that there is a cointegrating relationship between budget deficits and current account deficits (along with exchange rate and interest rate), and higher budget deficits results in higher current account deficits in Nigeria both in the long-run and the short-run. Based on these empirical findings, this study recommends policies to reduce budget deficits to check the current account from deteriorating in Nigeria.

 

Keywords: Current account deficits, budget deficits, twin deficits, Nigeria, ARDL

14th March 2018

How Economic Growth Response to the Development of Cities? Evidence from Empirical Study in Nigeria.

 

Ahmed Halliru Malumfash1 and Suleman Lawal Gambo2

Department of Economics, Umaru Musa Yar’adua University, Katsina, Nigeria

Email of the corresponding author:  halliruam77@gmail.com 

 

Abstract

This paper examined the impact of urbanization on economic growth in Nigeria using annual data over the period 1980 to 2016 and employing bounds testing approach to cointegration. The empirical investigation started with unit root tests using both ADF and Phillips-Perron. The unit tests results showed that the order of integration of the series is mixed I(1) and I(2). The ARDL bound testing results indicated that a long run relationship exist between GDP, unemployment, population and fixed capital formation. Urbanization is found to have a positive and significant influence on GDP in the short but in the long run the impact is not significant. Also, Population growth appeared to be positive and strongly related to economic growth in the long run.  The paper therefore recommend for proper urban planning and development as well as policies that promote even spread and emergence of new cities across all regions of the country.

 

Keywords: Economic Growth, Urbanisation, Population, ARDL

21 March 2017

ANALYSIS OF EXCHANGE RATE AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA

 

Dr Kwanga Cornelius Njikimbi

Department of Economics, Umaru Musa Yar’adua University, Katsina

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Abstract

The Nigerian economy is presently in a recession. Poorly managed exchange rates can contribute to significant turbulence in the economy. This paper examines the nexus between exchange rate and economic growth in Nigeria, with data drawn from 1979 to 2014. With regards to the methodology of the paper, Phillips-Perron unit root test is used to determine the stationarity properties of the series; Johansen cointegration used for the long run analysis; VECM complimented by impulse response function and variance decomposition are used for the short run analysis; and Granger causality test adopted to establish the causality in the relationship. The results reveal: an I(1) series; long run co-trending between exchange rate and economic growth for Nigeria; slow speed of equilibrium restoration; an inverse relationship between exchange rate depreciation and economic growth in the long run; an positive relationship between exchange rate depreciation and economic growth in the short run; and a unidirectional causality running from GDP to exchange rate. Conclusively, exchange rate fluctuations weakly enhances GDP in the short run, but in the long run, the depreciation of the Naira (which is the trend in this variable over the scope) negatively impacts on Nigeria’s economic growth – a scenario attributed to macroeconomic policy incoherence over time in Nigeria. This paper recommends that exchange rate policies should not be treated in isolation and in piece meals; and that given the importance of the long run, policies that will enhance the appreciation of the Naira (considering the fact that Nigeria is an import dependent economy) will drive economic growth.

 

 

Keywords: Exchange rate, economic growth, Nigeria, Cointegration, VECM